AZARIAH BEN SOLOMON (late 10th–early 11th centuries), exilarch in Babylonia after 953. Azariah's father, Solomon, was the son of Josiah (Ḥasan) but nevertheless supported by saadiah Gaon against Josiah's brother david b. zakkai . From documents of the Cairo Genizah, it is known that Solomon held office during the years 951–53. His precise term of office   is, however, unknown. It seems that his son Azariah succeeded to his position. The latter was the founder of several families of nesi'im in various countries. One of Azariah's sons, Zakkai, settled in Mosul and his descendants were nesi'im for several generations. His second son, Daniel, was gaon and nasi in Palestine from 1051 to 1062 and is mentioned in the Scroll of abiathar as well as in letters and other documents. His third son, Solomon, seems to have settled in Aleppo, where he established a dynasty of nesi'im which was still in existence in the 14th century. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Mann, in: Sefer Zikkaron… S. Poznański (1927), 19–21; Assaf, Ge'onim, 35–36. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Gil, Be-Malkhut Ishmael, 1 (1997), 109–10. (Abraham David)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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